Culture of Empathy Builder:
AAMC Reporter_June 2012:
Academic Medicine, September 2012:
2009-01-22 - Ten
approaches for enhancing empathy in health and human services cultures.
Improving Interpersonal Skills:
Audio- or Video-Taping of Encounters with Patients:
Exposure to Role Models:
Role Playing (Aging Games):
Shadowing a Patient (Patient Navigator):
The Study of Literature and the Arts:
Improving Narrative Skills:
"Empathy has been considered as far too important to be taught
only to health professionals (Ivey, 1971; 1974). Others have suggested that
the capacity for empathy in people in general can serve as a foundation for
building interpersonal relationships that have a buffering effect against
stress and can be an essential step in conflict resolution (Kremer & Dietzen,
1991). As the author has noted "empathy can be viewed as a remedy for the
psyche and soul of human kind...And may be it can serve as a means of
achieving a global peace here, there, everywhere on earth." (Hojat, 2007, p.
To enhance empathic understanding in health and human services,
we need not only a broad reform in the health and human services education at
undergraduate and graduate levels, but also in training the hospital staff,
staff of the assisted-living environment, as well as health services
administrators and executives. Clinical and organizational managers in health
care institutions and human services organizations should develop
well-designed and effective institutional-wide programs to retain, cultivate,
and enhance a culture of empathic understanding based on approaches described
in this article and other innovative approaches."
Office Interview 1 – “Professionalism
Office Interview 2 – “The
Science and the Art of Medicine”
Television Interview 1 – “Teaching
Empathy to Medical Students”
Television Interview 2 – “Medical
Student’s Perspective on Learning Empathy”
Physician Empathy PowerPoint Presentation
Dawn Episode 127 - Seg #2 PATIENT EMPATHY
Show Description: Dawn is joined by Thomas Jefferson University Hospital to
learn just how
important empathy is in the doctor-patient relationship.
Guest: Mohammadrezqa Hojat, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Psychiatry & Human
Jesse Edwards, Medical Student at Thomas Jefferson University
Dawn Episode 127 - Seg #3/4 Close PATIENT EMPATHY
students show gains in empathy are short-lived after training
"An exercise on the challenges of aging helps students feel more compassion
for patients, but researchers say repetition is needed for lasting results.
The link of outcomes and empathy
Previous research has shown a positive relationship between physician empathy
and patient outcomes. In a March 2011 Academic Medicine study, Hojat and his
colleagues found that physicians with high empathy had patients with
significantly greater control over their diabetes than patients of physicians
with low empathy"
Jefferson researcher seeks ways to make doctors more empathetic
"Mohammadreza Hojat is trying to figure out how to make doctors more
His study, published in this month's American Journal of
Pharmaceutical Education, found that medical students who watched a skit
about a senior citizen's introduction to an assisted-living facility
became more empathetic, but it didn't last. His most recent work, not
yet published, looks more promising. In that one, he combined
discussions of short film clips with lessons on why empathy matters."
Alliance 2012: Physician Empathy Presentation Slide
show and video
Workshop increases pharmacy and medical students' empathy
One year ago, a landmark study led by Mohammadreza Hojat, Ph.D., research
professor, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Thomas Jefferson
University, quantified a relationship between physicians' empathy and their
patients' positive clinical outcomes, suggesting that a physician's empathy is
an important factor associated with clinical competence. The study was
published in the journal Academic Medicine .
Empathy Difficult for Medical Students to Maintain; Creates Model to
Improve and Sustain Students’ Empathy
Dr. Hojat’s team found that empathy can indeed be improved. In an
article called, “Impact of a Workshop about Aging on the Empathy Scores
of Pharmacy and Medical Students,” which was published in the current
issue of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Study: Physicians' empathy can improve patients' positive clinical
It has been thought that the quality of the physician-patient
relationship is integral to positive outcomes but until now, data to
confirm such beliefs has been hard to find. Through a landmark study, a
research team from Jefferson Medical College (JMC) of Thomas Jefferson
University has been able to quantify a relationship between physicians'
empathy and their patients' positive clinical outcomes, suggesting that
a physician's empathy is an important factor associated with clinical
competence. The study is available in the March 2011 issue of Academic
"The purpose of this study was to provide an evidence-based scientific
foundation for the study of empathy as a clinically important factor in
patient outcomes," said Mohammadreza Hojat, Ph.D., research professor,
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; and director, Jefferson
Longitudinal Study of Medical Education in the Center for Research in
Medical Education and Health Care at JMC. "Our results show that
physicians with high empathy scores had better clinical outcomes than
other physicians with lower scores."
Empathy Publications by
1. Hojat, M., Mangione, S., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T., Veloski, J. J.,
Kane, G. (2001). Empathy in medical education and patient care (letter
to the editor). Academic Medicine, 76, 669.
2. Hojat, M., Mangione, S., Nasca, T. J., Cohen, M J. M., Gonnella, J.
S., Erdmann, J. B., Veloski, J. J., & Magee, M. (2001). The Jefferson
scale of physician empathy: Development and Preliminary psychometric
data. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61, 349-365.
3. Hojat, M. Gonnella, J.S. Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Veloski, J.J., &
Magee, M. (2002). The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: Further
psychometric data and differences by gender and specialty at item level.
Academic Medicine (supplement), 77, S58-S60.
4. Hojat, M. Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., &
Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, measurement, and
relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry,
5. Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Mangione, S., Nasca, T. J., Veloski, J.
J., Erdmann, J. B., Callahan, C. A., & Magee, M. (2002). Empathy in
medical students as related to academic performance, clinical
competence, and gender. Medical Education, 36,522-527.
6. Mangione, S. Kane, G.C., Caruso, J.W., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., &
Hojat, M. (2002). Assessment of empathy in different years of internal
medicine training. Medical Teacher, 24, 371-374.
7. Hojat, M., Fields, S.K., Gonnella, J.S. (2003). Comparisons of nurse
practitioners with physicians on the Jefferson Scale of Physician
Empathy. The Nurse Practitioner, 28, 45-47.
8. Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Mangione, S., Nasca, T.J., & Magee, M.
(2003). Physician empathy in medical education and practice: Experience
with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Seminars in Integrative
Medicine, 1, 25-41.
9. Fields S.K., Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Mangione, S., Kane, G., &
Magee, M. (2004). Comparisons of nurses and physicians on an operational
measure of empathy Evaluation & The Health Professions, 27, 80-94.
10. Hojat, M., Mangione, S., Nasca, T.J., Rattner, S., Erdmann, J.B.,
Gonnella, J.S., & Magee, M. (2004). An empirical study of decline in
empathy in medical school. Medical Education, 38, 934-941.
11. Gonnella, J.S., Mangione, S. Nasca, T.J. & Hojat, M. (2005). Empathy
scores in medical school and ratings of empathic behavior in residency
training three years later. Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 663-672.
12. Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Mangione, S. Nasca, T.J. & Magee, M.
(2005). Empathy scores in medical school and ratings of empathic
behavior Three years later. Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 663-672.
13. Hojat, M. Mangione, S., Kane, G., Gonnella, J.S. (2005).
Relationships between scores of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy
(JSPE) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Medical Teacher,
14. Hojat, M., Zuckerman, M., Gonnella, J.S., Mangione, S., Nasca, T.J.,
Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2005). Empathy in medical students as related
to specialty interest, personality, and perceptions of mother and
father. Journal of Personality and Individual Difference, 39, 1205-1215.
15. Glaser, K., Markham, F.W., Adler, H.M., McManus, P.R., & Hojat, M.
(2007). Relationship between scores on the Jefferson Scale of Physician
Empathy, patients’ perceptions of physician empathy and humanistic
approaches to patient care: A validity study. Medical Science Monitor,
16. Kane, G.C., Gotto, J.L., Mangione, S., West, S., & Hojat, M. (2007).
The Jefferson Scale of Patient’s Perceptions of Physician Empathy:
Preliminary psychometric data. Croatian Journal of Medicine, 48, 81-86.
17. Di Lillo, M., Cicchetti, A., Lo Scalzo, A., Taroni, F., & Hojat, M.
(2009). Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: Preliminary psychometrics
and group comparisons in Italian physicians. Academic Medicine, 84,
18. Hojat, M. (2009). Ten approaches for enhancing empathy in health and
human services cultures. Journal of Health and Human Services
Administration, 31, 412-450.
19. Kataoka, H., Koide, N., Ochi, K., Hojat, M., & Gonnella, J. S.
(2009). Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students:
Psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical
education. Academic Medicine, 84, 1192-1197.
20. Ward, J., Schaal, M., Sullivan, J., Bowen, M. E., Erdmann, J. B., &
Hojat, M. (2009). Reliability and validity of the Jefferson scale of
empathy in undergraduate nursing students. Journal of Nursing
Measurement, 17, 73-88.
21. Hojat, M., Vergare, M., Maxwell, K., Brainard, G., Herrine, S. K.,
Isenberg, G. A., Veloski, J. J., & Gonnella, J. S. (2009). The devil is
in the third year: A longitudinal study of erosion of empathy in medical
school. Academic Medicine, 84, 1182-1191.
22. Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Veloski, J.J. (2010). A rebuttal on
critics on decline of empathy [letter to the editor]. Academic Medicine.
23. Hojat, M., Louis, D.Z., Maxwell, K., Markham, F., Wender, R.,
Gonnella, J.S. (2010). Patient perceptions of physician empathy,
satisfaction with physician, interpersonal trust, and compliance.
International Journal of Medical Education, 1, 83-88.
24. Magee, M., Hojat, M. (2010). Rocking chair and empathy (letter to
the editor), Family Medicine, 7,465-466.
25. Berg, K., Berg, D., Majdan, J., Veloski, J., Hojat, M. (2011).
Medical Students' Self-Reported Empathy and Simulated Patients'
Assessments of Student Empathy: An Analysis by Gender and Ethnicity.
Academic Medicine, 86, 984-988.
26. Berg, K., Majdan, J.F., Berg, D., Veloski, J, Hojat, M. (2011). A
comparison of students’ self-reported empathy with simulated patients’
assessment of the student empathy. Medical Teacher, 33, 388-391.
27. Fields, S.K., Mahan, P. Hojat, M., Tillman, P. Maxwell, K. (2011).
Measuring empathy in healthcare profession students using the Jefferson
Scale of Physician Empathy: Health Provider-Student Version. Journal of
Interprofessional Care, 25, 287-293.
28. Fjortoft, N., Van Winkle, L.J., Hojat, M. (2011). Measuring empathy
in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education,
75(6), Article 109.
29. Forstater, A. T., Chauhan, N., Allen, A., Hojat, M., Lopez, B.L.
(2011). An emergency department shadowing experiences for emergency
medicine residents: Can it prevent erosion of empathy? (Abstract).
Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(10), s2.
30. Hojat, M., Louis, D.Z., Markham, F.W., Wender, R., Rabinowitz, C.,
Gonnella, J.S. (2011). Physicians’ empathy and clinical outcomes in
diabetic patients. Academic Medicine, 86, 359-364.
31. Pohl C.A., Hojat. M., Arnold, L. (2011). Peer nominations as related
to academic attainment, empathy, and specialty interest. Academic
Medicine, 86, 747-751.
32. Hojat, M., Spandorfer, J., Louis, D.Z., Gonnella, J.S. (2011).
Empathic and sympathetic orientations toward patient care:
Conceptualization, measurement, and psychometrics. Academic Medicine,
33. Van Winkle, L.J., Fjortoft, N., Hojat, M. (2012). Impact of a
workshop about aging on the empathy scores of pharmacy and medical
students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 7 (1), Article
34. Ward, J., Cody, J., Schaal, M., Hojat, M. (2012). The empathy
enigma: An empirical study of decline in empathy among undergraduate
nursing students. Journal of Professional Nursing, 28, 34-40.
35. Del Canale, S., Louis, D. Z., Maio, V., Wang, X., Rossi, G., Hojat,
M., Gonnella, J. S. (in press). Physicians’ empathy and disease
complications: An empirical study of primary care physicians and their
diabetic patients in Parma, Italy. Academic Medicine.